Multiculturalism and “Baku Process”

What is multiculturalism? In our region not many people know that because not many human being talking about this word meaning or process. Many people hear this word from friends from another countries or some find in internet, but not everyone understand what this word means. Different authors this word describe similar: Multiculturalism is the presence of various forms of cultural life; a protection of cultural identity in the multi-ethnic state (Jürgen Habermas) or Multiculturalism is the theory, practice, and policy of existence of diverse cultural groups in one body without the conflict. People with different ethnic identities should learn to live together without giving up their cultural differences (Nut Kirabaev). So Multiculturalism is providing a public and individual freedom of choice within the framework of the national ideology and policy and it is the ideal model for ethnic, racial, religious and cultural diversity in accordance with the policy of the government to solve the problems faced by. Multiculturalism ensured that all citizens could keep their identities, take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging. It encourages the racial and ethnic harmony and crosscultural understanding. That is writhed in Canadian Act of Multiculturalism. So establishment of multicultural policy in the proper way is able to solve different kinds of conflicts between a majority & minority in the growing ethnic migration all over the world and integration of many previously silenced voices into the discourse as possible. In this, multiculturalism is something seen in more than just traditional notions of culture and ethnicity. In the Multiculturalism course I here the main goals of Azerbaijani multiculturalism. It is about multicultural diversity and tolerance. What is in nowadays it has been successfully implemented in Azerbaijan. This year is officially announced as the year of multiculturalism. Following the suit of Azerbaijani model of multiculturalism could be effective for other countries. This is important nearly for all countries, which have some degree of diversity in their populations. To manage the relations between different groups is possible only by recognizing the ethnic and cultural diversity. Multiculturalism lets us do it by ensuring the differential cohesion. The benefits of getting knowledge of it are very big. In today’s globalized world we cannot avoid people of other cultures. Multiculturalism lets us integrate with keeping our ethnic-cultural identities. In other hand, being aware of more cultures and more ideas makes us more well - rounded as human beings &understand our fellows. Being aware of other cultures helps us identify ourselves. We must not forget that it is some part of science, which depends in political, geography, history, education and another sciences. Multiculturalism have levels of development and establishing (recognition, accepting and conducting). At first it is a social phenomenon - a product of the development of society and has an influence on other social processes, such as policy, economy, culture, various forms of social consciousness and etc. Within tight interconnection the mutual tolerance is provided. The state promoted multiculturalism makes it an integral part of its ideology and create conditions necessary to sustain different cultures and identities. Promotion of multiculturalism as the state policy and building the desirable social -political model belongs to state. Multiculturalism policy is applied in the constitutional, legislative and parliamentary levels. Ethnic minorities are supported by special rights. They are represented in the media and multiculturalism is included in the curricula. In the level of transforming a society plays an active role in spreading the multiculturalism and making it a lifestyle of citizens. Multicultural ideas are instilled in the public consciousness. They began to believe that every judgment can be reduced to a cultural perspective and denying the ability to make cross-cultural judgments. A transformation of multiculturalism to the national policy and way of life stipulates its victory and highest growth. So multiculturalism looks so good for nowadays society, but it have some contrary statements. This statements depends, in mine opinion, of country understanding and respect level. Author`s sad, hat “Multiculturalism is the “plutocracy tempered by tokenism.” It is “a high-tech feudal anarchy, featuring an archipelago of privileged whites in an ocean of white, black and brown poverty” (Lind M.) or “A cult of ethnicity exaggerates differences, intensifies the resentments and antagonism, and drives deeper the awful wedges between races and nationalities” (Schlesinger A.) or “Multiculturalism is an across-the-board assault on the Anglo-American heritage” (Patrick Buchanan) or “It undermines the America's traditional majority culture, downgrade the national culture while raising the status and power of other cultures” (Lawrence Austere) or “Multiculturalism is incompatible with Western democracy and that multicultural countries can only be held together through state coercion” (Byron M. Roth) or “Multi-ethnic societies are less charitable and less able to cooperate to develop public infrastructure” (Etiologist Frank Salter ). But multiculturalism is not for one persona, so we need to see much bigger people group – the civilization. We can live long life alone, but we not be pleased of our life. So we need people around us and civilization give it for us. Civilizational approach to multiculturalism is varied. It must to acceptance the cultural pluralism of the society and a coexistence different layers of society as multiethnic and multinational communities. The notion of “2 way street”. Developing new ways of stabilization in reliance on their social, political and ethnic-cultural point within the tolerance. Ensuring the equal social, political and cultural equality to minorities through the legal system operating on the basis of justice. Determining the identity in order to prevent the cultural conflict: We can know ourselves and define against whom we are after getting know who we are not! (Huntington). Confirming that there are several civilizations and we should choose the appropriate path to manage all these cultures. Considering civilizational differences not as a source of conflict, but as a factor of development and enrichment, as a manifestation of the complementarity of different civilization types. Also we don’t must to forget the Socio-physiological approach to multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is not only a demographic issue as the way that cultural diversity is framed and addressed on a political level has a direct impact on intergroup relations. People sad that: Equality should be conceptualized not as sameness, but as the public respect of difference, as a type of democratic cultural pluralism (Young) or Multiculturalism is not a post-conflictual state (Dharwadker) or Contact between cultures is a creative and reactive process, generating new customs and values, and stimulating the resistance (Berry) or A dynamic approach to processes of identity allows to conceptualize the growing complexity of identity which makes the boundaries between cultures increasingly permeable; multiculturalism get the gist of a part of people’s sense of self (Hermans&Kempen). Efforts to translate national, local and educational policies related to cultural diversity into more positive inter-group relations will be most effective if they are rooted in systematically analyzes of how people ‘in their daily lives’ understand multiculturalism and what they see as its successes and failures. Multiculturalism is an integration strategy of the dominant society to open and being inclusive in its orientation towards cultural diversity. In a case of balance between two values within individuals and society a personal integration and societal multiculturalism can be achieved. So I must to say, multiculturalism process is nowadays much faster. And reason why it is Globalization. Globalization - is able to change ethno-cultural and social identity that was historically formed in national organizations. Culture migrate from one place to another and disappear walls between country’s and in one place can live hundred culture. The relationship between the national majority and ethnic-cultural minorities undermines the stronghold of social and national stability built by nations, a government and a history. The establishment of multicultural policy in the proper way is able to solve different kinds of conflicts between a majority & minority in the growing ethnic migration all over the world. Multiculturalism requires new approaches to the concept of the existence of nations and national communities. It is: 1. A self-confirm as multiethnic and multicultural institutions; 2.To be represented in the national politics on non-discriminatory basis (without bias); 3.To ensure the freedom of personal and public choice; 4.To achieve a social harmony, protection of ethnic groups and cultures; 5. A formation new moral values and a social conflict resolution; 6.To strengthen the legal state system; 7. A public use of the national language; 8. Providing the regional autonomy; 9.Representing in the governmental bodies with their political representatives; 10. Building new state education system taking into account the national interests; 11. Representing in the labor market by imposing anti-discrimination law. Multiculturalism is providing a public and individual freedom of choice within the framework of the national ideology and policy. Author`s sad “Multiculturalism is the presence of various forms of cultural life; a protection of cultural identity in the multi-ethnic state (Jürgen Habermas ) or Multiculturalism is the theory, practice, and policy of existence of diverse cultural groups in one body without the conflict. People with different ethnic identities should learn to live together without giving up their cultural differences (Nut Kirabaev) or The identity is never only about location, about shoring up a safe “home,” but also displacement and relocation, the experience of sustaining and mediating complex affiliations, multiple attachments (James Clifford)”. Multiculturalism have different forms. Nowadays we know three models. Models of possible policies in management the ethnic and cultural diversities: • Isolation - doesn’t allow the establishment of ethnic and cultural diversity. Australia (1901) • Assimilation - doesn’t ban from asylum seekers and migrants’ entering, it makes a maximum effort to reduce their impacts on its culture (Germany) • Apartheid - a policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race (SAR, 1948-1994). In Lithuania we have assimilation, because the primary culture is Lithuanian and another don`t have many rights like primary. So ethnic policy allows distinguishing two types of multiculturalism: 1.Weak. 2. Strong. Weak multiculturalism – when cultural diversity is recognized in the private sphere, while a high degree of assimilation is expected in the public sphere of law and government, the market, education and employment. Features of weak multiculturalism: • Assimilating not willingly; • Representing the classic form of liberalism; • Taking a neutral position toward minorities; • Boosting nationalism (chauvinism), cultural fundamentalism and right-wing ideology against the immigrants; • Believing that each culture need not be represented in the curriculum, but rather the knowledge must be taught; • Dual citizenship; • Financial support to ethnic organizations; • Maintaining the bilingual education; • Delivering state and local assistance programs, aid to low-income immigrants. Strong multiculturalism - marked by institutional recognition of cultural difference in the public sphere including political representation. Features of strong multiculturalism • Letting people with different cultures and identities to behave as equal members of society • Minorities are supported by special rights. • Representing the modern type of liberalism; keeping the culture and ethnic identity of minorities on a parity basis. • Creating conditions necessary to sustain different cultures and identities • Believing that every judgment can be reduced to a cultural perspective and denying the ability to make cross-cultural judgments. • Approving the multicultural policy in constitution, legislative and parliamentary levels • Including to a course syllabus • Representing the ethnic minorities in the media In 2008 in Baku, have succeeded to create opportunities for regular exchange of views and interactions between officials of Muslim and European countries by ensuring their constructive cooperation at the conference of culture ministers of Europe and adjacent regions. In 2010, they have put forward the initiative of World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue at the UN General Assembly, and have held that World Forum in our capital in 2011, 2013 and 2015. The support extended by various international organizations, particularly by the UN Alliance of Civilizations, UNESCO, World Tourism Organization, the Council of Europe and ISESCO to this dialogue has paved the way to build such a successful cooperative platform and ensured the development of a very promising international initiative called the “Baku Process”. In 2016 april occurred Baku Process: Responding to New Challenge for Global Intercultural Dialogue. The promotion of dialogue between cultures is now confronted with new issues, actors, and voices that call for significant re-thinking and broadening of its ideas, methods, and evidencebase. This reflects the importance of global issues, the rise of strong battlegrounds for ideas and seemingly intractable conflicts, continued challenges for human rights, the subjugation of women and minorities, racism and the rise of hate-crime, financial meltdowns, forced migration, terrorism, disease, and climate change. The Baku Process has become an established key international platform to enable and encourage people, countries and organizations from around the globe to commit to concrete actions to support diversity, dialogue and mutual understanding by raising awareness on the importance of intercultural dialogue worldwide. The diversity evident throughout the world creates challenge for the promotion of intercultural dialogue –there can be no-one-way to apply dialogue in peacebuilding and conflict management. The Baku Process emphasises a more effective counter to the powerful forces of prejudice in our societies through the active promotion of a universal pluralism. This Session will develop a greater understanding of the role of dialogue in the development of peaceful relations between countries or groups of people who have been enemies. Through the lens of the established Baku process, such rapprochement is shown as a slow, gradual and patient process and showcases why cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue and responsive democratic governance are vital for the development and peace, especially in time of global crisis. The Session will draw on casework progress in four key priority areas in the work of the Baku Process: 1.The role of non-state actors, private sector and broad definitions of ‘culture’ to include faith and belief, tourism and the arts’ 2.The role of education and the particular challenges of radicalisation and countering extremist narratives. 3.Recognition of the economic and structural conditions that have influence for social cohesion Mobilising young people as both key audiences and as resources. And, moving forwards, provide opportunity for discussion in key topics including: 1. How can we make intercultural dialogue more inclusive and more reflective of diversity in our world? What role world history, classical traditions, cultural practices, foreign policy approaches, writings of scholars. 2. How do we build a framework for commonly shared values which fosters social cohesion; 3. How do we promote mutual understanding and reciprocal knowledge of cultural, ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity as well as supporting reconciliation efforts; 4. How do we test and promote the principles and tools of intercultural dialogue through quality education and the media 5. How do ensure that dialogue delivers sustainable change and cares about the ethical, social and cultural dimensions In mine opinion, I think multiculturalism is most importing part of policy, social life and culture in nowadays world. Because everything is changing and you must learn tolerance and understanding, which shows multiculturalism. You need to learn more about different culture and you must start to respect than tradition`s and when you do that, you can expect that they will do the same. Because everything begun for you and your family. Salomėja Lukaitė 2016-05-19 Vilnius, Lietuva

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